Monday, May 2, 2016

Ladybugs and Aphids




Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Aphids...and Ladybugs

Happy May! The lovely spring weather has been absolutely perfect this year with 'April showers bring May flowers' as our motto. The cool mornings with the nice slow warm-up throughout the day has been the gardeners dream!

 Unfortunately the cloudy days have been the impetus for rapid aphid reproduction... bright daylight tends to impede it. Aphids are known throughout the world as perhaps the single most destructive pest known to both farmers and gardeners alike. They arrive in the spring and with the damp and favorable conditions this year they seem to be in great abundance, making their presence known throughout all of central and western Oklahoma.
Known as plant lice, greenflies, or blackflies they are small sap-sucking insects who will literally suck the life out of plants. A little known species of the aphid family is the white or wooly fly, that tiny dab of white thread-like fluff that jumps when you jiggle the plant they are resting upon. Fossils indicate that Aphids have been present for 280 million years and today there are approximately 4,000 aphid species found throughout the world. These monsters can migrate great distances by riding on winds looking for a fresh food source... one of our lettuce aphids arrived on the wind from Australia.

As with most invasive garden pests, aphids are extremely adaptable to ever-changing conditions. In fact if a host plant becomes ill or conditions become overly crowded, some aphids are able to spontaneously sprout wings to fly to a new food source. They have specialized mouth parts that enable them to stick a straw-like mouth piece into a plant stem and begin sucking the protein from it, therefore making it ill. They secrete a chemical that allows for free flowing fluid from the plant while exuding droplets of a quick-hardening fluid that surrounds their body with a shell for protection.


During feeding Aphids also produce a fluid called 'honeydew' which is a sticky goo which may be found on any surface where aphids have resided. An unusual side effect of this substance is that when it hardens it turns black creating a sooty mold fungus... roses are the most frequent victims.
This honeydew is a food source for several  species of ants who actually 'farm' the aphids, causing them to produce honeydew by a process of 'milking' by a stroke of their antennae. These ants manage thousands of aphids which are called herds and to assure survival of their food source, the ants gather aphid eggs and protectively store them for the winter. In the spring, the ants carry the newly hatched aphids back to the plants to settle in and once again become their grocery store. (*Sarcastic note: 'Thanks ants'.)

Heavy aphid infestations will cause leaves to curl, wilt or yellow with stunted plant growth and  aphids can actually cause a plant to die a slow death of dehydration, since liquids have either been drained or compromised. Aphids are simply not allowed in the garden as they provide nothing but destruction... unless you are an ant.


Therefore they must be exterminated and instead of spraying a pesticide which will kill beneficial bees, butterflies, Praying Mantis, beetles and everything else, purchase a flat of lady bugs. Each Ladybug will eat over 75 aphids a day and are able to discover them in their secret hiding places... plus discovering ladybugs in the garden is a delight every child as well as those of us who still retain childish joys!
Photo: Just released Lady bugs here on May Day... they are getting to work!
*They may be ordered online for as little as $12 for 1,200 voracious ladybugs... get some this week.  





Monday, April 25, 2016

Flowering Shrubs and Annuals


An heirloom Spirea from Grandpa Dougherty's (circa 1935)


 

The rains have been a blessing, the countryside is green once again and we are recovering from the drought. Over time as the drought intensified, many of us lost favorite flowering shrubs and since Friday is Arbor day, perhaps plant a new one.

 

If the lovely selection of shrubs is reviewed, it becomes evident that one can have scented and flowering beauty all season with very little effort. One of the nicest things about shrubs is after flowering they continue to look splendid for the duration of the season, some with berries which appear from the flowering, some with simply exquisite foliage.

 

The Viburnum species are a marvelous addition. They flower early and fill the garden with the first breath of spring and following flowering they still appear attractive dressed in their verdant finery of bold and interesting leaves. For a late spring bloomer, some Spirea would be a nice addition. With her sweet little clusters of flowers and the tendency to survive extreme temperature, this gem survived the Oklahoma dust bowl and makes a lovely focal point. Later, the Heavenly Bamboo or Nandina would bloom and look divine. With the cream-colored flowers replaced by berries which turn scarlet by Christmas, they have long been a staple in Southern gardens.

 

A few Crape Myrtle would add texture, color and a stunning flowering display for all of August through September and the relatively new Black Diamond is striking with her dark purple foliage. If cut back in the early spring, they will bloom as a shrub rather than become a tree. If the tips are trimmed after the first flowering, they will flower again. Pyracantha make a perfect Halloween display as miniature 'pumpkins' dance along the stems. The list is endless!

 

It is time to plant annuals, those seeded darlings who will provide riotous color all summer, but last only one season. In planting for visual interest it is important to remember to layer by height from the front to the back of the bed. Plan for low growing flowers to be at the front and gradually increase the height to give the visual feel of ‘movement‘.

 

In an area which receives full sun, tiny low growing Rose Moss or Portulaca are both perfect in front, love it hot, require little care and will provide an ever-blooming cheerful spot of color all season. Behind them, perhaps plant the short variety of Marigolds; they do well in the heat and will also help with insect control as they are a natural pesticide. *Note their funky smelling leaves. Next could come some intermediate then tall Zinnias, and the new varieties have an amazing spectrum of colors. Allow the imagination to run rampant and have fun... the bees will thank you!

Monday, April 18, 2016

The Native American Gathering of Nations



We watched 'Dances With Wolves' last evening and it brought back bittersweet memories of our time within the Native American culture of the 1990's. The magic of the culture still existed... the elders were still living and tribal spirituality was an everyday way of life. The open generosity of Native Americans was to be envied for it included the belief that the measure of a person was not what you could amass personally, but rather what you could give to others. To admire a possession belonging to a Native American was for them to bestow it upon you. Condemnation was not in their vocabulary and laughter ran freely. I learned that Pow-Wow's were not a benefit where the promoters made money, but rather an event where they gave all that they could to each person attending asking only for collective prayers for the honoree. 

 

I would arrive at a camp with smoke drifting to the sky in the darkness above tepees, the drum beat as background music of another time, and my heart would leap. It called to me in an unimagined way and I felt at home there. To have been called to the grandstand to be honored and gifted by the Head Lady Dancer before the Gathering of Nations and a crowd of 5,000 Native Americans was truly one of the highlights of my life. The welcoming, the polite introductions, the respect and old fashioned manners reminded me of my childhood in its sense of propriety.

 
However there is another story about me being honored at the Gathering of Nations. Honoring me came as a complete surprise to me and I was totally unprepared.


Minnie Goodbear     
As we entered the camp ground at the Gathering of Nations, I noticed that in addition to the familiar Cheyenne and Arapaho tribal members there were representatives of many Native American tribes I did not know. The regalia is quite different from tribe to tribe so various tribes may be identified by their clothing and bead work, shawls and embroidery, porcupine quills and feathers. The intimidating and traditional Sioux from North Dakota, the Grovan of South Dakota, the Winnipeg from Canada, the austere Pawnee of eastern Oklahoma as well as many other tribes were all gathered there. Since this was not an event for tourists, I was rather intimidated and hoped to blend in as inconspicuously as possible, which is no easy feat since I am so blond. Not particularly dressed for festivities, I moved to a group I knew well and sat down to enjoy the dances. The little girls in their waving shawls imitating butterflies, the men portraying the stampede of the buffalo and the flight of eagle, the women whose feet caressed Mother Earth… all beautiful and exciting.

When it came time for the intermission, I was totally unprepared for my name to be called over the loud speaker requesting for me to come to the front. The grandstand was located at the far most point of the dance grounds and is where the Master of Ceremonies, dignitaries, judges, special elders and chiefs from all the tribes gather to watch and judge the contests. When my name was called, I had to walk the center of an entire length of a football field with 5,000 curious eyes upon me individually! My throat tightened, my knees went weak, my mouth became dry and suddenly I was afraid I would pass out before I reached the front. Walking carefully with each step, head up, wondering if I appeared dignified, wondering if I should smile or look somber, hoping I would not embarrass myself or my friend who was honoring me. Step by step with all eyes on me. For the first time in my life, I was a true minority.

As I had stood to go, I had accidentally stepped on one of my trademark high top Converse shoe strings untying it; unbeknownst to me it was left to dangle and dance with each step I took. With abject horror Michael noticed immediately and watched as the shoe string whipped back and forth, back and forth with each successive step. Later he confessed that he prayed "Please God, don't let her fall, please don't let her fall" as a mantra hundreds of times...one prayer with each of my foot steps.

After what seemed to be a lifetime, I arrived at the grandstand and was greeted by my spiritual sister, Minnie Goodbear, who gave a small speech about me and introduced me to the gathering. Many very important Natives were being honored as well, so I was introduced to each of them. She placed a gorgeous sterling and turquoise necklace around my neck, hugged me, then all the dignitaries shook my hand and welcomed me. When the ceremony was over I was immediately surrounded by people congratulating me and admiring the necklace.

Michael appeared, smiled and nodded to everyone,  and gently took my arm, pulling me aside. He whispered in my ear….. 'For the love of God, tie your damn  shoe string; you almost gave me a heart attack!'

Earth Day, Arbor Day and Rachael Carson


 
This Walnut is embracing a Cottonwood



 “Trees are the earth’s endless effort to speak to the listening heavens.” Rabindranath Tagore

All of us who garden are acutely aware of our environment. As we dig in the soil, we connect with the magical realm of Mother Earth and the results of our work are the rewards bestowed upon us for our efforts. This April, we celebrate monumental efforts made by others to conserve our precious planet.

 

First to be considered is our oldest conservation effort, National Arbor Day, which is celebrated each year on April 22nd, the birthday of its founder Sterling J. Morris. Mr. Morris, the publisher of a Nebraska newspaper, began a campaign to encourage his community in the planting of  trees since the plains of Nebraska were almost treeless. By 1885 Arbor Day was declared a state holiday and now it is embraced by all of the states.

Arbor means tree in Latin. The Arbor Foundation annually gives away thousands of trees to individuals and communities. Many Native tribes planted a tree with the birth of a child and watched as both the tree and child matured... a wonderful custom we adopted.

 
We have Rachael Carson to thank for her efforts to bring to light the hazards of chemical toxicity. A marine biologist by profession, she noted unprecedented losses of plant and animal life and her research concluded it was the result of chemical poisonings. Following WWII,
America embarked on a path of chemical use that was unprecedented and unexplored. Finally banned in 1972, DDT, which killed all insects good or bad, was at first considered a miracle for with it the mosquito became a thing of the past. Neighborhoods full of children were regularly fogged and DDT is now considered one of the most hazardous chemical carcinogens ever created. Ms. Carson lived only a few years past publication of her monumental work ‘Silent Spring’ but her legacy of thoughtful research alerted a grateful nation. The title alone was an ominous prediction of a world without the buzzing of bees, the song of birds, the croaking of frogs, the splash of fish.

 

Following in her footsteps Senator Gaylord Nelson initiated the concept of ‘Earth Day’. By the early 1960’s America’s love affair with chemicals had begun to take a terrible toll. Environmental degradation was becoming astonishingly evident so Senator Nelson first presented his concerns to President Kennedy in 1962. The evidence was conclusive yet the environment would not be on the political agenda for almost a decade. Finally on November 30, 1969, the New York Times ran an article that began “Rising concern about the environmental crisis is sweeping the nation" thus setting the stage for the first official celebration of ‘Earth Day’. It is expected that Earth Day will be celebrated by over 500 million people in 195 countries.


The enormity of this grassroots effort was the impetus in 1970 for the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency whose mission is to protect human health and the environment.

Short of planting a tree this April at least hug one!

Monday, April 4, 2016

Transplant Disenchanted Roses




 

Throughout history, mankind has had a love affair with roses and they are perhaps one of the oldest flowering plants. Roses have been found in fossils dating 70 million years ago, indicating that they were growing where the dinosaurs tread.

 

Roses were in the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem, and their image appears on Egyptian tombs. Roses were a significant part of Chinese medicine and by the Middle Ages they were used medicinally by Monks throughout Europe.

 

Now is the time to check your roses to assess if they are unhappy with their location in the garden. Often trees will grow and filter light and since roses love full sunlight perhaps it is time to transplant your disenchanted garden guest. The rules for transplanting, which means ‘lift, remove, relocate and reset in another place’ are precise:

Prior to transplanting anything, mark the north side of the plant with a string or piece of cloth. After it is dug, place it in the same direction and it will adjust to new surroundings far more rapidly and with greater success than if it is planted in an opposing direction. Additionally, do not apply fertilizer to newly transplanted specimens. To give fertilizer to a recent transplant is akin to giving a man in ICU a three course dinner… it is not a good idea.

 

After choosing a new location dig the hole three times the size of the root ball. Make a small mound in the center of the new hole to prevent air pockets from forming as you plant. To enable you to move the transplant easily perhaps give it a good soaking several days before the dig and try to choose an overcast day when rain is predicted.

 

Dig around cutting in a circle,  lifting and probing occasionally to see if the plant is indeed moving and note where roots may still be anchored. Take as much soil as can be lifted so the root system is least disturbed.

 

 Place your rose slightly higher in the hole as it will settle several inches after planted. The bud system should therefore be an inch above ground level. Point the exposed roots and rootlets outward and add ½ cup of bone meal around the root system. Fill with soil, water well and wriggle to eliminate air pockets, which will bubble up. Lastly prune the spindly growth leaving good strong canes and prepare to enjoy the show later in the season!

*Photo: The Tea Rose I transplanted last spring blooming by July.

Monday, March 28, 2016

Edible Redbud Blooms and Darling Tulips




 

The current chill is exactly what we needed to assure beautiful blooms on the Peonies this year. They need a good dose of cold in order to produce bountiful flowers. Luckily, we lost only a few mid-blooming Jonquils that were in the boot last week.

The fabulous Redbud, our state tree, has begun to bloom and can be seen dotting the landscape everywhere. The delicate lavender and fuchsia flowers dance along the bare branches before the heart-shaped leaves emerge, thus making it one of the earliest signs of spring. The Redbud is an ancient species common in
North America, Europe, Japan, and Asia where it can grow as tall as 40 feet. A European species is called the Judas tree because of the belief that Judas Iscariot, the betrayer of Christ, hanged himself on a Redbud tree. This mistake in species caused a heated debate over making it our State tree, with Oklahoma City resident John Y. Iskian, finally proving that although related, the two trees remained different. Concrete success came on March 30, 1937 when Gov. Ernest W. Marland and the Sixteenth Legislature signed Senate Joint Resolution Five, officially bestowing emblem status and extolling the redbud's historical role of welcome to the "sturdy and hardy pioneers." On June 24, 1971 the redbud became our official tree in a statute signed by Gov. David Hall

 


It is not a well know fact that the blooms are edible. Much like the honeysuckle, they contain one tiny drop of sweetness. The lovely color makes adding them to a salad positively knock out... a plus is the surprise so few know they may be eaten. Native Americans used boiled bark to cure maladies, including leukemia and bows were made of the wood as well.


The early tulips have begun to bloom as well. With over 3,000 varieties available at affordable prices, there are tulips for every taste. Gardeners can plan a continuous spring show by planting several varieties which bloom in successive intervals. The early pastel heirloom, the mid-blooming fragrant ruffled, and finally the late blooming sexy-scalloped parrot will provide continuous flowers for almost a month each spring.


Tulips make lively indoor arrangements and it is delightful to be able to bring cut flowers inside this early in the season. Do remember that tulip stems continue to grow several inches after they have been cut. This is the reason that many tulip displays tend to develop a droop over the edge of the vase after several days. This effect is quite attractive but choose a vase that will allow for dramatic flow.

Wednesday, March 23, 2016

In Praise of the Potato




Many of Irish descent planted potatoes on St Patrick's day, in hopes for a blessed crop. Long considered the most perfect food, it is cultivated globally, and the potato has been credited with saving people from the brink of starvation. The failure of the potato crops in Ireland created a famine causing thousands of people to flee that tiny nation in search of food... the Irish immigrants arrived on our shores due to loss of the potato.  



Oddly, the potato is native to Peru with the earliest archaeologically verified tuber remains found in the mountainous central region, dating back to 2500 BC.  Potatoes provided the principal energy source for the Inca Empire and its Spanish successor. In Bolivia and Peru in altitudes above 10,000, tubers exposed to the cold night air are made into chuño. Making chuño, which means frozen potato in Spanish, is a five day process during which the potatoes are frozen for three nights then subsequently exposed to bright sunlight each day. By the end of the process the chuno is chopped and may be stored for years with no loss of nutritional value. Chuño was discovered by the Spanish conquistadores in the 16th century and became the diet of the  native silver miners who were enslaved by the Spanish government. The potato was introduced first to Spain and cultivation traveled throughout all of Europe by yhe 1600's, reaching the American shore by 1621 when the Governor of Bermuda sent a chest of them to Jamestown, Virginia. 



Astounding potato news was released last week. A new scientific study is to begin in Lima Peru next month with NASA, the US space agency, aiding Lima's International Potato Center. (CPI) CIP is a nonprofit research facility that seeks to reduce poverty and achieve food security for millions globally. They have chosen the La Joya Pampas, a sector of the Atacama Desert in southern Peru, for an experiment in growing potatoes in harsh conditions. The La Joya Pampas are considered perhaps the driest place on earth... nothing grows and there is no insect or animal life. It was selected because it resembles Mars.



One hundred potatoes were selected for the experiment. Of those, 40 are native to the Andes Mountains, conditioned to grow in different ecological zones, to withstand sudden climate changes, and to reproduce in rocky, arid terrain. Sixty have been genetically modified to be immune to viruses and survive with little water and salt. The head of the experiment, Peruvian Julio Valdivia-Silva is concerned as our cropland disappears due population growth, millions may starve. He is hopeful that perhaps food may be farmed on Mars to feed our ever-growing population. *Vegetable news is rarely exciting, but this certainly is!



Further information on this lovely vegetable, which is truly a gift from God:

*A potato will draw poison from a wound. Michael had an bad toothache once and the dentist put an intricate drain in the wrong place. I had him put a slice of potato on the gum line above the abscess and after about 15 minutes it popped, and (grossly) filled his mouth with the rancid goo. After swishing with hydrogen peroxide, he was good to go.

 

Incas had many uses for the potato:

Placed raw slices on broken bones to promote healing

Carried them to prevent rheumatism

Ate with other foods to prevent indigestion.

Measured time: by correlating units of time by how long it took for potatoes to cook.

 

Other uses of the potato follow:

Treat facial blemishes by washing you face daily with cool potato juice.

Treat frostbite or sunburn by applying raw grated potato or potato juice to the affected area.

Help a toothache by carrying a potato in your pocket.

Ease a sore throat by putting a slice of baked potato in a stocking and tying it around your throat.

Ease aches and pains by rubbing the affected area with the water potatoes have been boiled in.

Place potato slices on the eyes after receiving welders flash to reduce pain and swelling.
*Photo Credit: The Smithsonian.

Thursday, March 17, 2016

The Art of Weeding




Over the weekend Spring entered the garden in all of her glory. The cool mornings and warm afternoons have provided the sort of weather which makes one rush outside to smell the newness of the season and watch as tender baby leaves unfurl in a time-lapse moment. One can smell the sweet scent of flowering shrubs wafting through the air with each soft breeze. Spring is truly a treat for all of the senses!

 

It is time to address the weeds, which seem to be crashing the garden party like a drunken, raucous crowd. To the novice gardener, weeding is simply the removal of unsolicited and untidy plant material which invades the garden uninvited, overpowering and bullying the true guests. All gardens must be weeded however there are many theories on how to achieve success without repeat effort. Chemicals aside, informed personal effort is the only answer. 

 

There are the die-hard pioneers who believe that hoeing is the only answer and that hoeing is manly. (It is!) Hoeing is primarily used in the vegetable patch to remove weeds in a crowded space; the hoe can get in and about the vegetables easily without harming them.

 

There is an art to properly using a hoe, which must be sharpened and oiled before use each spring. The hoe, like a good knife, is a balanced tool and this balance allows the gardener to literally drop the weight of it on the intruder without much physical effort.  A gentle rhythm is used and is almost like a dance…slowly lift-drop, lift-drop. Experts at hoeing are often amused by those who use a frantic chopping-action, which is not only a waste of energy but also has employed the human back to do the job of a expertly maneuvered hoe.

 

For the flower garden, hand removal is the only logical answer. To truly remove weeds it is necessary to trace the stem of the weed below the ground to the base of origin, follow the outlying roots with the finger tips, then remove all of it in a slow steady pulling motion, root and all in its entirety. It is difficult to feel the root system wearing gloves so many gardeners chose to weed gloveless, which will likely produce a 'green thumb' stain.

 

Weeding can be an almost a Zen-like activity, calming, unrushed, and quieting. When the soil is moist and the weather not too hot, it can be a perfect way to spend an afternoon. 


*Tip: Removing the unwanted finger stains is easy if one simply adds a tablespoon of sugar when washing hands with soap and water. 

Wednesday, March 2, 2016

Living Simply


Living Simply: A Personal Choice


Each of us have a choice how we live our lives. Simplicity suits me and was relatively easy for us. Since 1983 my personal ’statement’ to save our planet was to shop carefully. I have found that clothing, household items, cooking utensils, decorating items, shampoo, cosmetics, or anything else can be foraged outside of a conventional store for a fraction of the cost. So I shop yard sales when they are in season, decent thrift shops, community sales and auctions... and sometimes you are rewarded.

At yard sales I meet new people, chat, and look at gardens while I browse, often coming away with the gift of a plant or cutting. I enjoy the limited selection and the feeling I am shopping an outdoor bazaar. I also find it amusing to ‘study’ people conducting a sale by looking at their books, which are a profile of their personality… like the little old lady who was selling the 'Harrad Experiment' or the Bible thumpers who read nothing but Satanic novels. Often I am amazed. The man who sold his great-grandmother’s rocking chair for $40 was an enigma, the one who sold the canon ball that removed his great grandfather's leg in a Civil War battle for $5 was as well. A clock belonging to a deceased maiden aunt and her 1930's Cuban Crocodile purse, both for $10 were a surprise as was the signed Houdon statue for $50.  


When I shop this way, I (purposefully) don’t pay taxes since taxes have already been paid on what I buy, which is a statement unto itself... and I pay about 5 cents on the dollar.
We can each make a difference in our own way… and sometimes, after many, many years...the garage sale gods may reward you as they did us with our Houdon, a once in a lifetime find.

Monday, February 29, 2016

Tasty Turnips... another miracle plant.




     Turnips originated in the Mediterranean region and spread from there to the Middle East and western Asia, with European cultivation predating the Middle Ages. They still grow wild in parts of eastern Europe and western Russia. Turnips arrived here early... they were first  cultivated in 1622 Colonial America.

     First described by Theophrastus in 400 B.C. and later by our favorite Greek, Pliny the Elder, turnip cultivation was well established by Greek and Roman times. Low in calories, high in nutrients, turnips were lauded by Pliny who described them as one of the most important vegetables, stating 'it should be spoken of immediately after corn, or the bean, for next to these two productions, there is no plant that is of more extensive use.' Besides human consumption, turnips roots and greens are healthy fodder for farm animals.

     The turnip is a close cousin of cabbage, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, argula and kale. This group of vegetables are often overlooked however they have a powerhouse of health benefits. Turnip roots are high in dietary fiber, vitamin C and B6, folate, calcium, potassium, and copper. The greens are an excellent source of vitamins A and C, as well as a good source of calcium, iron, and riboflavin, all of which are important for maximum health.

     Turnip sprouts provide high levels of glucosinolates, sulfur-containing compounds which protect against some forms of cancer and provide antifungal, antibacterial and anti-parasitic benefits. They also contain a category of nutrients called indoles. According to the Linus Pauling Institute, indoles in turnips may reduce the risk of lung and colorectal cancers. A tissue culture study found that brassinin, a type of indole compound, killed human colon cancer cells... turnips may be a miracle cure. *Dr. Pauling was among the first to correlate cancer with diet.


For a nagging cough or at the start of a cold, boil some turnips, strain, then drink the cooled water to eliminate it almost immediately; this drink will also stave off other viral infections. 



     Turnips keep well either harvested and stored in a cool place and they may also be left in the ground and harvested as the need arises. Gowing in uremarkable soils, they have been historically used to staved off famine in turbulent times and they have long been a staple of rural dwellers. They grow well in cool soils so plant some now and they will be ready to harvest in three months...  more may be planted in the fall for an early spring crop.

Thursday, February 25, 2016

St John's Wort... Part I

This February plan to include St. John’s Wort as a dietary supplement. The ancient Chinese have long considered it among their most important herbs however it fell out of favor in the west in the 1800’s. For centuries, St John’s Wort had been used to treat disorders from digestive problems to coughs, and it was lauded for its action as a sedative. During the 1970’s research confirmed it had a significant affect on nervous conditions and depression. In clinical studies it was proven that sixty seven percent of depressed patients drastically improved when taking this simple herb.

St. John’s Wort has an easy nature, growing in dry, gravely soils, fields, and bar ditches with no attention what so ever. The sunny yellow flowers appear on a woody base and bloom from late spring through frost. Numerous flower clusters appear at the end of the branches, each sporting five bright petals with small black dots along the margins and a single pistil in the center. The leaves have spots on them which appear to be holes. However they are translucent ’pockets’ of resin that are released when pressed and the flowers exude a crimson liquid when cut.

Early Christians named it to honor St. John the Baptist and so besides medicinal uses, St John’s Wort has mystical connections. It was said to offer protection against the devil if woven into a wreath placed upon the door and it was carried by travelers to assure their safety. During witch trials, it was stuffed into the mouth of the accused to force a confession. (Considering it was a sedative, one can only imagine what they confessed.) A sprig placed under the pillow upon retiring was said to keep one safe while sleeping and perhaps St. John himself might appear in a dream.

In capsule form, it may be readily found in the herbal section of the pharmacy… and about now gardeners can certainly appreciate the benefits of a natural ‘chill pill’ as we endure February! 

More on St. John's Wort


 


Since another cold snap is expected and we are not yet through February, perhaps consider adding some St. John's Wort to your supplements. It has a long and colorful history and has been considered an important plant since ancient times... there are over 400 species worldwide. From the time of the ancient Greeks down through the Middle Ages, St. John's Wort was considered to possess magical powers and was used to ward off evil and protect against disease.

 

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, St. John's Wort has been used to heal wounds, remedy kidney troubles, and alleviate nervous disorders, including insanity.  Early Christians named it after John the Baptist and claimed that red spots appeared on leaves on August 29, the anniversary of the saint’s beheading.

 

As far as magical properties are concerned, it was used for purposes from projecting longevity to testing ones chances for marriage. To predict their chances for marriage young girls would place a sprig of flowers under their pillow... if the flowers were fresh in the morning, their chances were good, if they had wilted the lady was to be disappointed in love for another year. As recently as the 1850s, St. John’s wort was used as a method to determine how long members of a family would live. Sprigs of the fresh plant would be hung from the rafters by family members and in the morning they were examined to see which ones were in varying stages of wilt, foretelling the order of death.

 

The tops of the plant were also considered effective for keeping away ill fortune and bringing luck. Bringing flowers of St. John’s wort into the house on a midsummer eve would protect one from the evil eye, witches, or fire. In one case in 1696, an evil spirit was terrifying occupants of a home in London until St. John’s Wort placed under pillows exorcised the apparition.


Culpeper (ca. 1650) wrote 'it is a singular healinng wound herb' and as an ointment 'it opens obstructions, dissolves swelling and closes up the lips of wounds.'  St. John’s Wort was used to cure ulcerations of the ureter and kidneys, and for jaundice, gout, and rheumatism as well as injuries to the spinal cord. Native Americans used it as a snake bite remedy and for bruises.


Recent research matches ancient thought and American herbalists still use St. John’s wort for many of the same conditions for which it was recommended throughout the ages. In Europe preparations are commonly prescribed by medical doctors for burns, ulcers, nervous disorders, and depression.


This cheery plant spreads rapidly by means of runners so I recommend putting it into a pot to contain it... it is indeed another miracle plant.

Monday, February 8, 2016

Forcing Flowering Shrubs






Suddenly it seems we have turned the corner with winter! The Sun is appearing noticeably earlier than it did just a week ago and the weekend was delightful albeit a bit windy. The tiny buds on the first flowering trees and shrubs have begun a appear so bring some inside and force them to bloom, thus giving one a grateful breath of spring. They set their flower buds last fall and once the buds have been exposed to cold for several months the branches are well suited for the process. 



'Forcing’ simply means tricking the branch into believing it is Spring by exposing it to the warmth of your home. The buds usually take several weeks to open, but watching them each day will help stave off boredom of February as we wait for full blown Spring. The easiest branches to force include Flowering Quince, Forsythia, Honeysuckle, Crabapple, Currant, and Redbud.

If you choose branches that should be pruned such as those from over lapping or crowded spots, you not only will have performed a necessary task, but the cut branches will bring you pleasure as they begin to flower. Take a bucket tepid water with you to the garden to hold your stems, look for branches with the most flower buds, and cut them from ten to fifteen inches long. *Tepid is water which is neither warm or cool to the touch of your hand. With a sharp knife cut a slit at the bottom of each cut branch about an inch up to help them absorb water through their woody stem. Remove any foliage that will be submerged in water as it may cause bacteria which will easily transfer to your branches and remember to change the water every day or so.

When they are brought to the house, place them in a small amount of warm water which will surprise them and begin the trickery of forcing blooms. Move them to a vase of cool water after several hours and place them in a chilly part of the house for several days to help them ‘settle in‘. (Finding a cool place in this old farmhouse is relatively easy.) Once they have relaxed a bit place them in a high traffic area where you can see them during the day… watching for more and more blooms is part of the fun. The new leaves will begin bursting forth and the tiny buds will swell then flower to provide a joyous Spring show while the garden is still sleeping. Pick some today!

Monday, January 25, 2016

The Importance of Milkweed


Although the weekend included a biting wind when at last the sun began to shine, spirits were lifted, luring the gardener outside. The ninety plus tulip and Jonquil bulbs discovered hiding under the porch couch were finally planted... they are grateful for dirt-time to rest a bit before their arrival at the garden party this spring.

All of the publications about gardening of late have included information on the importance of Milkweed in the landscape and the reasons for it resonate far beyond the innate beauty, which is unmistakable.

The modern classification of plants and their uses begins with Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish botonist, physician, mineralogist, and zoologist, who is considered the father of ecology. Born in 1702, by the time of his death in 1778 he was the most acclaimed scientist in all of Europe. He classified Milkweed in 1753 and named the genus after Asclepius, the Greek god of healing. The genus contains over 140 species and is named for its milky sap, which contains latex and alkaloids... Milkweed is vital for the survival of our lovely butterflies.

Milkweed produces some of the most interesting flowers in the plant kingdom, with pollination accomplished in an unusual manner. Rather than go into detail, it will suffice to say Nature's whims are often scientifically complex.

The uses of Milkweed vary greatly...
The floss (hair-like filiments) was introduced in 2007 as a hypoallergenic filling for pillows, in 2015 an industry was developed in Quebec using Milkweed silk in the manufacture of thermal clothing, and the highly absorbant fibers are used to clean up oil spills. The high sugar content of the nectar fostered Native American use of it as a sweetener while in contrast some tribes in South America and Africa embraced the toxic aspect of the plant to poison arrows for deadly hunting. An animal who consumes more than 10% of their body weight will die and thusly, ranchers have sought to eliminate Milkweed from the prairie.

Since leaves of the Milkweed are the only source of food for our beloved Monarchs, whose numbers have dropped alarmingly in recent years, it is important to include this lovely plant in the garden...the butterflies are dependant upon our intervention for their survival.

Tuesday, December 22, 2015

The Poinsettia Is Not Poisonous



In the 1800’s the holiday flower of choice was the carnation which still graces many arrangements, however today the Poinsettia has come to speak of the holidays as no other. The Poinsettia began as a small Central American shrub and for centuries the Aztecs used them both medicinally and for making red dye. The Poinsettia was first introduced to the United States in 1825 by Joel Robert Poinsett, the first United States ambassador to Mexico who discovered it while hiking. Quite an ambitious gentleman, Mr. Poinsett introduced the American Elm to Mexico and also established the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.

Contrary to popular belief, Poinsettias are not poisonous if ingested. The rumor began following the death of an army officer's child who ingested a leaf in 1919; the child died soon after of another sudden illness. Researchers at Ohio State University have done extensive tests with mice and rats and found no ill effects and the American Medical Association has confirmed the plant is not poisonous. (Michael's father is a physician and the myth was so extensive that they never had one in their home.) Although not poisonous, Poinsettias are a part of the genus Euphorbia , all of which exude a milky sap when broken and in many species the sap may cause a skin rash.

The Poinsettia we know today is the creation of the Ecke family of German botanists who arrived in America in 1900. Paul Ecke Jr. noted there were few potted plants that bloom in winter so he developed a full and sturdy Poinsettia that would bloom at Christmas. He then solicited editors of women’s magazines and donated his plants to be used in Christmas layouts. He also donated hundreds to be used as the backdrop on television talk shows at Christmas in the 1960’s. The placement of layers of red Poinsettias behind Johnny Carson and Jack Benny was a brilliant marketing ploy and assured the Ecke family lasting leadership in the industry. Today eighty percent of the Poinsettias marketed during the season still come from the Ecke Ranch in Encinitas, California where the generations of the family continue the legacy.

When selecting a Poinsettia look for a plant with dark-green foliage, completely colored bracts, and no sign of wilting or yellowing. Since the plants are sold during December it is important to make sure it is securely wrapped when purchased to prevent exposure to the elements as it is rushed from the store to the car, then the house. Since they are from a hot climate, exposure to cold may prove fatal and cause instant curling of the leaves. When you get your poinsettia home unwrap it and place it in a comfortable sunny location and water whenever the soil feels dry. Enjoy!

~Dedicated to my friend Bruce who can make his rebloom!

Monday, December 21, 2015

Magical Mistletoe... and Merry Christmas!




Mistletoe has a long and colorful history including myth and medicinal remedies most originating in Northern Europe, the birth place of this extraordinary plant... it is amazing!

All Mistletoe plants are parasitic, meaning they attach to a host and thus take from it nutrients and water necessary to live. Over time this process may weaken or even kill the host, giving Mistletoe a rather bad reputation. In the plant kingdom, parasitism has evolved only nine times and Mistletoe has independently evolved five, making it one extraordinary species. It is a large family with over nine hundred species located in Europe, North America and Australia. Without becoming too scientific, it is safe to say that most Mistletoe is completely self-sufficient and adaptive to changes in climate.

The enigma of Mistletoe easily lends itself to lore. It hangs air born between heaven and earth, has no roots yet bears fruit, and remains green and vibrant during the winter months. It was said to have been revered by the Druids as most holy, especially if it appeared on an Oak which was their most sacred tree. The golden berries of the plant were considered a key linking the heavens and underworld. Cut with a golden sickle on December 23rd (the day of the marriage of the solar and lunar forces), it was not allowed to touch the ground but was caught with a white cloth. Two white bulls were sacrificed for the ritual which ensured fertility, protection from evil, abundance, and harmony. The ritual of kissing under the Mistletoe has its origin in these pagan beliefs.

Norse mythology has Baldur, the solar hero child of Frigg and Odin, killed by a twig of Mistletoe. As Baldur descended to the Underworld, it was said that he would not return until after doomsday. Then, as the solar god, the light of the heavens, he will usher in an era of peace and light to mankind. His story is long, full of conspiracy and jealousy as the gods and goddesses of old were prone to petty emotions, however the historical power of the plant has remained.

Never to be outdone, the Greeks too have a story with Mistletoe as the centerpiece. Aeneas, a young hero, used the power of a golden bough of Mistletoe as the key which allowed for the safe entrance and return of a mortal to the Underworld. He went below and sought his father for advice and counsel and returned unharmed yet transformed and spiritually reborn.

Among Christians, it is said that Mistletoe was once a vibrant tree which was used as the wood for the cross of the crucifixion of Christ. Afterwards the disgraced tree shriveled and was reduced to a parasitic vine as punishment.

Medicinally, although the berries are poisonous, it has been used as a remedy for epilepsy with wood amulets said to ward off attacks. It has been used to reduce stress related heart palpations, relieve headaches and dizziness caused by high blood pressure, and since ancient times to treat tumors. Recent medical research has promising results with Mistletoe as a cure for cancer.

Whatever the reason to include this marvelous plant… a kiss below it, a wish for good luck, or simply a spot of bright green color… it is truly a magical addition to any Christmas decor.

Monday, December 7, 2015

Spoils of Winter... the Ice Storm


   

My poor Bald Cyprus wilted to the ground looking like Snuffy... she recovered as the ice melted!
Following the massive damage from the unusual ice storm, many have had to say goodbye to cherished friends who lovingly provided shade from the Summer sun, a leafy site for birds to nest, and then gently spoke to us as breezes rustled through leaves in Autumn. It was with great foreboding that many of us watched the first bits of ice form and expand with the drizzle and fog. As the power went off during the first night, we sat in the stillness and waited... then heard with horror the falling drizzle becoming small pings of sleet before reverting to drizzle once again. The scope of the damage to our world was not yet apparent, yet we could innately feel angst as worry placed her clutch on our hearts...we were afraid for our forest.  

As light broke even the smallest the branches were becoming encased in an ever-widening band of ice. Over time it changed from frosty, to clear ice, and once again to a glazed frost, with even a small drip frozen mid-motion. As the day progressed day a slight breeze began and the one could hear the smaller branches began to snap. As the ice continued to accumulate, massive branches and entire tree trunks could be heard moaning and creaking, echoing through the silence as they began to break under the weight of it. Following these warnings a sudden and gigantic last break shattered the silence as a slow free-fall began with the swish of brittle branches before the mighty thud to the forest floor. The ice continued accumulating for days…and our hearts broke as literally thousands of our trees fell in minute succession. Our precious trees, the ‘standing people’ who guard the sentinels of our lives, had succumbed to Nature‘s whim.

Once the tears are dry, the optimistic nature of the gardener will emerge for we adapt to an ever changing scene in our gardens regardless of the cause. No rain, too much rain, heat waves, blizzards, ice storms… there is a constant seasonal obstacle. The gorgeous spring may become the parched summer, or a late freeze may eliminate spring flowering bulbs altogether and yet become a fabulous summer of lush fruits and flowers. Gardening is much like gambling… the toss of Nature’s coin my land face up or down.

We must embrace the present, clean up the spoils left by the storm, and look to the change the storm has brought us. Many of us will have sunlight in the garden for the first time in decades, so these winter days are perfect for researching and planning something new for next spring. The Hostas, who love shade, must be moved, but Iris who refused to bloom will have sunshine.

And we have been given a visual opportunity to see exactly which trees are best adapted to our weather… and ice storms seem to be part of it now. The Fruitless Mulberry, Lacebark Elm, Magnolia, Pear, and Apricot trees are not well suited and most were severely damaged The native Redbud and Caddo Maple were unaffected and the Bald Cyprus went slowly to the ground in a snuffleupagus-like mound but as ice melted, slowly pulled herself up to her full height and with a resounding pop stood whole again. The Euronymous were flattened, but they too regained their composure. This week go about the garden and make note of what fared well, and replace those who were lost with those who are hardy.

*The electric company reported it takes only 1/16th of an inch of ice on lines to cause a power outage. A small generator to run necessities would make a lovely Christmas gift… I fear there will be many more winter storms to come. 

Tuesday, November 24, 2015

Perpetual Seeds... a Miracle of Nature



Photo: Mr. Barne's Glass Gem Corn

The miracle of seeds is often inspiring… their tenacity is amazing and miraculous. On an archaeological excavation students from Canada discovered a stash of seeds buried within a Native American seed pot… traditionally a small rounded pot with an opening too small to allow rodents to enter and disturb the precious seeds. Discovered on the Menemonee Reservation in Wisconsin, the pot, and thus the seeds, were carbon dated from around 1290, making the seeds an incredible 800 plus years old. Excitement was palatable as the seeds were planted and the wait began. To their utter joy, the strange seeds grew into a rare species of squash that had been extinct for hundreds of years. The students named the squash ‘gete-okosomin, which is native for ‘really cool old squash.’

There is also an amazing report of lupine (Lupinus articicus) seeds over 10,000 years old sprouting as well. Discovered in the Yukon of Alaska they were found deep within the burrows of ancient lemmings buried in permafrost silt dating to the Pleistocene epoch.

Oklahoma Cherokee farmer, Carl Barnes, wanted to reconnect with his ancestral past and began the search for corn he had only heard about. His efforts resulted in Glass Gem corn, an heirloom species that produces kernels in a stunning array of rainbow colors. By exchanging seeds from lost-then-found caches across the country, he was successful and happily and quietly grew his corn until 1994 when his success went viral as the pictured photo appeared. His seeds are now available for the public to plant.

Noting the importance of seeds, the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, or the Doomsday Seed Vault, was created in 2008. Located on the remote island of Svalbard in Norway and dug into the frozen Arctic ice, is humanity’s assurance of food perpetuation in case of a catastrophic event, such as nuclear war or an asteroid strike. It acts as a repository for some 865,000 varieties of seeds from around the globe, with an intended capacity of 2.25 billion seeds. Seeds are the recognized life-blood of the planet and their promise of survival is one of Mother Nature’s grandest plans … seeds are perpetual.

Tuesday, November 10, 2015

Forcing Bulbs for Holiday Splendor


The November days seem to be passing quickly and soon the winter festivities will arrive. To decorate with scent, color, and charm, plan now to ‘force’ some bulbs for the up-coming season. For those unfamiliar with the process, ‘forcing’ is the method by which a bulb is planted and compelled to grow and bloom out of season by exposure to the warm temperature indoors. This process brings the bulbs into bloom long before they would naturally bloom outdoors, thus allowing us the pleasure of their company during winter months.

Since their ancestors came from warm areas of the Mediterranean the darling Paperwhite Narcissus requires no cold to bloom and may easily forced. Taking only three to four weeks to flower, they will bloom faithfully providing both fragrance and cheer for the holidays. So easy is the growth of these bulbs that anchoring material may include gravel, pebbles, colored glass stones, or moss as acceptable mediums. Any sort of shallow growth container whether pottery, glass, or clay will work as well.





First select large, top-grade, flawless bulbs which are free of sooty mold then choose a favorite container that will be lovely as a centerpiece or focal point. Perhaps select a glass bowl for the added pleasure of watching the roots as they begin to grow and slowly twine about the stones. Grandmother’s shallow crystal bowl filled with red, white, and green glass stones is lovely at Christmas but more a more rustic selection might include a pottery bowl with polished rocks or pea gravel. Naturally if a large container is chosen, more bulbs will be needed, however the display will be entirely riotous… and often more is better!

Fill the bottom of the container with whatever you have chosen to anchor your bulbs, making a bed about two inches deep. Gently press the bulbs halfway down the bulb mass, wriggling and carefully nestling them until they stand firmly on their own. Try to space the bulbs about two inches apart, remembering to place several in the center as well. After arranging your bulbs, fill the container with enough water to cover your anchoring material, moistening the bulbs approximately half way up. Keep this water level, adding a little each day if necessary and your bulbs will begin to flower in three to four weeks.




As the roots grow, the reed-like foliage will first appear and suddenly many tiny blooms arrive, slowly swelling, then opening over the course of several days. Remember to give the bowl a shot of gin as the first flower buds appear. The gin will force the foliage to stand at attention and will prevent the wilt so prevalent with forced Narcissus.





The marvelous sweet smelling flowers will last several weeks filling the house with spring time as temperatures plummet.




One of the most beautiful books I own is 'Paradise Contained'. Featuring photographs by William Stites, with Mary Sears and Kathryn George, it is timeless and would make a lovely gift for anyone who gardens. Here is a link to it: http://www.biblio.com/paradise-contained-by-stites-william/work/967748


Monday, November 2, 2015

October Desert Surprises


I had planned to do my column on how to wash, dry, then store Caladium bulbs, however something strange and delightful occurred this past week which is worthy of note. The Atacama Desert in Chile, known as the driest place on Earth, is awash with color after a an entire year’s worth of rainfall fell in a strange October storm which broke all records.

Arica, Chile, in northern Atacama, holds the world record for the longest dry streak, having gone 173 months without a drop of rain in the early 20th century. In another Atacama neighbor to the south of Arica, the average annual rainfall in the city of Antofagasta is just 0.07 inches.
Strong El Niño years can be a rainy boon for the region and heavy thunderstorms brought almost an inch of rain in one day… this amount is what normally falls in 14 years. The malva (or mallow) flowers on the floor of the Atacama desert awoke and are providing the most breathtaking show in almost 20 years.

Most desert wildflowers are annuals who are very short-lived, rushing to live an entire lifetime in a few short weeks before the dry heat returns once again. The seeds produced by these wise flowers will rest dormant, often for years, patiently waiting for rainfall. When the rain finally arrives, they will quickly spring forth in a glorious wash of fleeting color before succumbing to the return of the heat.



Joining the list of the driest places on earth is our own Death Valley (Greenland Ranch, California), who also claims the distinction of being the hottest as well. Death Valley saw the mercury soar to a scorching 134 degrees on July 10, 1913, beating out Libya for this dubious honor. Death Valley is also famous for its spectacular, spring wildflower displays, but those are the exception, not the rule. Only under perfect conditions does the desert fill with a sea of gold, purple, pink or white flowers.

A series of unusual storms arrived in October at Death Valley National Park. Although flooding caused damage to structures, the wild flowers awoke to produce a glorious show last week. Blooming enmasse these wildflowers attracted large numbers of butterflies, moths, bees and hummingbirds that would not otherwise visit Death Valley… it became a very busy place for a brief span of time.

The natural survival of plants are a miracle of Nature. Not only do seeds sleep if necessary, but they can adapt to man made environmental disasters inflicted upon them. In a mere six generations a weed will genetically adapt and become resistant to an herbicide… Roundup will not affect them.  Perhaps, if we are indeed fortunate, flowers will continue to reside everywhere on Earth.

Monday, October 26, 2015

Collecting and Storing Seeds



 
The weekend was the epitome of Autumn perfection as breezes caressed the garden with their gentle warmth. With the cooler mornings of late it is delightful to work in the garden and the faithful annuals are seeding… it is time to collect marigolds, zinnias, four o’clock, datura, dill, and feverfew amongst others before our first killing frost.

The annuals that have acclimated in your garden will fare well next year for they have created a DNA memory of the conditions where they resided. For example: The children of a packet of marigolds will have adapted to our rather harsh conditions; they will require less watering than those adapted to conditions in Vermont.

Collect seeds when the Sun has dried all the morning dew and allow them to completely dry in a warm place in the garden before bagging them for storage. After a few hours one can test for dryness by placing them in a zip lock bag for a few minutes. If the bag begins to sweat, they are not dry enough and if sealed they will mold and become nasty mish. If they are still not dry by evening, take them to the house and continue drying… there is no rush to package them once they have been collected from the parent plant.

Once the seeds are completely dry, seal and store them in zip lock bags. *Tip: If you scour the closet and can find any of those silica packets that come in the pockets of garments or a shoebox, seal it in your bag of seeds. It will absorb any possible moisture left and assure the seeds winter well.

Label them and possibly include a slip of paper in the bag making note about their color, height, heat tolerance, when and where they bloomed and for how long. By Spring you will have forgotten the details about them so the reminders are quite helpful in planning where to plant them in next years garden.

When the great pyramids were opened, archaeologists discovered caches of seeds and upon planting these seeds, stored for thousands of years, a large majority of them germinated because of the warm, dry, and constant temperature within the pyramids. Obviously seeds must be stored at a constant temperature above freezing to assure viability. My seeds are stored under the bed in a roll-out plastic bin… they also rest for the winter in a open-woven French market bag hanging in my closet.

As a delightful garden game, have the children and grandchildren help collect… they will be so proud of themselves as they help plant next spring.

Tuesday, October 20, 2015

Fall Bulb Care



With the cool front that arrived last weekend, the crisp mornings provided us a delightful surprise after the record breaking heat. Apparently Autumn has truly arrived and it is with grateful sighs we are donning sweaters and having morning coffee outside again.
 
Autumn is the time to plant spring blooming bulbs and divide those who have been in the same place for several years. After blooming flowering bulbs will produce offspring as a miniature bulb springing from the adult. Over time some bulbs will experience overcrowding as these baby bulbs grow and these close quarters will often produce lack luster flowering. In particular, Amaryllis Belladonna, the lovely Naked Ladies, must be divided every three or four years… since this fabulous bulb may live to seventy years her decent lodging is well deserved.
 
To divide them use a garden fork which will not cause as much damage to the roots as a spade… dig at the mound-edge in a large circular pattern. Begin to gently lift, easing the mass from the ground, attempting to get most of the attached roots. Rinse the mass of bulbs and begin by carefully separating the entwined roots. Once they are divided, separate the smaller bulbs from the larger by placing them in two piles. Trim off any yellow or unhealthy foliage but leave healthy, green foliage attached. While the bulbs are out of their bed, turn the soil and incorporate compost, rotted manure or peat moss to enrich it even if you are planting them back from whence they came.

Replant the largest bulbs with soil about two inches above the crest… planting too deeply will decrease flowering. Bulbs appear their best spaced about 8 inches apart, planted in clumps of three or more. Select a new spot in the garden to plant the smaller bulbs and do not expect them to flower the first year for it will take a bit of time for them to become flowering adults.
 
The exception to the rule of bulb division is the Jonquil and Daffodil who grow outward instead of intertwining, thus making them perfect for naturalization. Naturalizing is the process by which undisturbed bulbs quietly spread until they have evolved into a large and spectacular show. Since one bulb eventually becomes ten or more they should to be planted with enough room to spread, planting them in any location a surprising spot of spring beauty will be appreciated. To naturalize with spontaneity, randomly toss the bulbs and plant them where they have landed… a large display is truly show-stopping. Now is the time to plant them!

Sunday, October 11, 2015

The Rain Man 27 Year Reunion

Yesterday~
Left to right: Patrick, John, Dolan Beth, Marshall, Andrew, and Peter. Andrew was the baby crying in the movie.

It was a magical reunion with Beth Grant. We exchanged stories about how Marie Rowe (The casting director) changed all of our lives... for the better. We are all so bonded that we feel like family and it was delightful and memorable to get together again. Beth has just completed filming in El Reno... the movie is 'Great Plains' and is set to be released later early next year. I can't wait to see it.

Galen Culver filmed it and it will air it on "Is This a Great State of What" ... Channel 4 at 5:00 tomorrow Oct 12.

Left to Right: Marshall, Dolan, Beth, Andrew on her lap, Peter, Patrick, John, and Tom Cruise.