Monday, February 12, 2018

Natures Antibiotics

Wild Rose Hips... to ensure health
The weather of late has been schizophrenic to say the least and the forecast predicts more erratic behavior in the coming weeks. With temperature fluctuations, pollen floating about, and the influx of flu it would be wise now to look to nature to boost the immune system and prevent illness.

Until the advent of antibiotics, Nature provided all the ingredients to ensure survival and health for the inhabitants of the planet. Here in North America our own Native Americans survived severely harsh conditions with an intricate knowledge of healthful foods. The Plains Indians ate as they nomadically traveled and the Apache alone had over 200 items in their yearly diet. Much of what they “found” along their path was both nutritional and medicinal.

An example of one of their naturally occurring health boosters are the Rose Hips found on wild bushes from Texas to North Dakota. Rose hips have long been a valuable source of Vitamin C, which easily boosts the immune system. The hips are the berries formed on wild roses following their flowering and contain as much ascorbic acid as an orange. In fact the portion of the orange containing the most health benefits is the bitter white inside the rind that most people discard. During WWII the federal government recommended that citizens add rose hips to their stews as a vegetable and recommended brewing it as a tea for the health benefits.

Another valuable immune boosting plant is the Echinacea. Results of archaeological digs indicate that Native Americans have used this marvelous plant for over 400 years. It was used to treat everything including infections, wounds, scarlet fever, blood poisoning, and diphtheria. Considered a valuable cure-all for hundreds of years, its popularity declined with the advent of antibiotics. Today Echinacea is used to reduce the symptoms and duration of the common cold or flu, and the symptoms which accompany them such as sore throat, cough and fever.

Recent reports from the medical community have issued alarms that antibiotics no longer work; our systems are saturated with them. It is not necessary to actually take an antibiotic to ingest substantial amounts of them either. They arrive in our bodies from consuming milk and meat from cattle that are overly medicated, eggs from chickens that receive a daily dose, and so forth. I consider this medical warning a strong indication that we best seek natural cures that have been around for eons. Nature contains an arsenal of plants and herbs that were put here for us to use... they are the plants that kept our ancestors alive and well. They are easily obtainable as supplements and teas today and they are perhaps a necessity as winter continues along its frigid path.

Medieval Gardens

There is little action in the garden as the deep freezes continue so noting historical events is interesting. In 2003, the buried remains of a 700-year-old garden at Whittington Castle in Shropshire, England changed historian's understanding of medieval gardens.

The 14th-century garden had one of the earliest and largest viewing mounts ever found in England, an unusual layout, and an elaborate ditched water system. Viewing mounts were created to provide elevated views of a castle's garden, grounds, and surrounding landscape and symbolized the owner's wealth and high status… Wittington had one of the first such mounds.

The Whittington Castle mount, a 16-foot man-made mound, puzzled archaeologists for years. However historical researcher Peter King discovered in records dating to 1413 reference to ‘a garden with a ditch of water around it,’ which led archaeologists to conduct a geophysical survey of the area. Employing techniques such as magnetometry, ground penetrating radar, and soil resistivity surveying to look below the site's surface, the archaeologists traced the buried outlines of the paths and rectangular plots of the garden. The findings suggest the mount and garden were built sometime between 1300 and 1349.

It is the earliest example to survive in the United Kingdom and was quite ornate in its heyday. Wittington had been built as a stronghold for the protection against Welsh raiders, the French and Scots, and when the hostilities ended in 1282 the landowners turned their attention to such leisure luxuries as gardens.

The Nearby streams, no longer essential to the defense of the castle, were diverted to fill trenches surrounding the castle thereby creating a moat. Small footbridges needed to be crossed to reach the garden while another footbridge connected the garden and the viewing mount.

Following Wittington, lavish water features became common in medieval high status gardens and a special pavilion was perched on the top of the mount so vistas of parkland with unusual imported animals and fruit trees could be viewed from above.

These gardens were statements of the owners' wealth and power, designed to imitate a vision of paradise and to impress visitors. The Wittington castle was owned first by Fitz Warin and his family… Knights of the First Order, wealthy from dutiful Service to the Monarchs they owned it from 1204 to 1420 and it is they who built the spectacular gardens for their enjoyment.

Several hundred years later it would be in ‘utter ruin’. It is unfortunate Wittington has been reduced to piles of stone however it is amazing that technology has allowed us to view this long buried British treasure.

* Of note: The ruins are said to be haunted.
*Photo is of the gate houses, all that remains of the Castle.

Monday, January 22, 2018

Gardeners: The Eternal Optimists

As you can see, mine is a mess!

As January continues to drone on, there is little to do in the garden, and dusting the house is not nearly as satisfying as playing in the real dirt outside. Now is the time to review your gardening journals to note seasonal happening of the past.
Year after year, depending upon one's memory becomes impossible as a first garden slowly turns into successive decades of them. Lovely gardens visited, names of plants, and often disastrous experiments may be lost to memory entirely unless there is a reminder of them. Not to mention the sorrow of accidentally severing sleeping bulbs while planting new ones. Left to chance, the established garden may suffer unless careful records are kept and a five year journal is best.

Now, when the garden is resting is a good time to review the endeavors of the last season and make note of exactly which plants thrived and those we accidentally killed. I have a list of those I have loved and lost, and often wonder if my favorite roses will greet me in heaven. I also have a list of those that will not acclimate to my garden; like the detestable Rhododendron which was finally sent to the rubbish heap, banished forever. Year after year it was a struggle to keep it alive, moving it from place to place, from sun to dappled shade, from various drainage and variable soils, until at last I forced myself to abandon it altogether and promise never again. The same is true of Hydrangeas who will absolutely refuse to live here for any reason and are a waste of otherwise well-spent money.

The winter months are perfect for planning for the next season. By reviewing a journal, one may note when to expect the early Crocus, the Stars of Bethlehem and Peonies. Or when the last freezes arrived and how the fruit trees fared. Journals may include diagrams of the location of perennial plants and bulbs so there will be no mistakes when adding new guests in the garden. The growth cycle from planting the seeds to enjoying full bloom may be noted, as well as the scent of flowers and the taste of vegetables at their peak, and which years were best. If left to recall crops may not be rotated yearly, which may result in poor vegetable yields.

 Photographs of the gardens according to year are helpful as well; to look back five, ten, even twenty years and see how plants grew, how light changed is an amazing trek. Gardening is so dependent on the weather that some gardens that were spectacular in May were gone by July with no rain and 107 degree heat, yet some years have been rewarding all season. The beauty of the garden is really at the whim of circumstance no matter how much we try otherwise. Late freezes, freak hail storms, torrential rain, no rain, wind, temperatures over 100 degrees for days on end, hoards of locust… we gardeners face some daunting obstacles and yet remain the eternal optimists!

 Finally, please remember to water at least twice a week, weather permitting… it is far too dry without significant rain for several months and the garden is suffering.  

Monday, January 15, 2018

Catalogues and Cedar Trees

Seasonal Thoughts
The weather is that of deep winter and but for the birds scurrying about there is little action in the garden… it is resting, awaiting  Spring. After the fervor of the holidays many gardeners are content to relax and browse the catalogues that begin arriving this time of year to temp us with new and amazing gifts we may bequeath our gardens.  Considered the gardeners ‘dream books’ they are generally poured over until threadbare as they feature the latest hybrids. Always intriguing hybrids, which are genetically modified to alter the look and performance of a plant, often produce a product which is astounding.
The cramped and simple gardens belonging to poor laborers and factory workers in Europe were the birthplace of the hybridized flowers we now know. In the early 18th and 19th centuries the Carnation, which was once the size of a dime-sized Dianthus, grew to the proportions we now recognize. Petals were doubled and redoubled as enthusiastic breeders toiled in their tiny spaces after working long hours at their jobs.  Plant breeders today work as tirelessly as their predecessors so plan to add something totally new, unusual, and fantastic this coming season.
Being house bound this time of year is perhaps a blessing since the Cedars are currently pollinating and if one merely brushes by one, a pale yellow mist will swirl about the hapless wanderer. This pollen causes considerable misery to those who dwell among them and they are prolific throughout the state. It is an ancient tree with the oldest known living tree to be over 500 years living near Tulsa… it is obviously a determined tree and the product of evolved survival tactics. It will grow in impossible conditions and each one will selfishly take any and all available water, leaving less aggressive trees to perish at their feet.
The female trees are covered with small blue berries; each one is an infant Cedar tree. The birds gorge themselves in a frenzied feast, fly to rest in leafy trees, and drop a Cedar ‘package’ of unprocessed berries to grow at the base of the tree. The aggressive adolescent Cedars surround and literally choke or starve any other species of tree, taking all water and nutrients from the soil for themselves.
In retrospect, it is an amazement they were purposefully introduced enmass to Oklahoma as wind breaks to hold the land following the dust bowl. At the time the public was unaware of their aggressive nature and their rapid growth and hardy habits were considered a miracle. Forestry folk encourage the replacement of cedar trees with more beneficial trees like native oak, elm, or other non invasive species.
Photo: Princess Parizade Bringing Home the Singing Tree from The Arabian Nights, 1906, illustrated by Maxfield Parrish.  
*I wish to see a singing tree!

Sunday, January 7, 2018

In Praise of the Potato

You know we have turned the corner with Winter when the potatoes begin to sprout!
Julia and I will plant the sprouts since I don't have the heart to toss them!
Wednesday the Potato Expo will begin in Orlando Florida. Potato growers from all over the country will gather to share all their insights on the potato... exciting vegetable news is rare!

Cultivated globally, the potato has long been considered the world’s most perfect food and has been credited with saving people from the brink of starvation. The failure of the potato crops in Ireland created a famine causing thousands of people to flee that tiny nation in search of food... thus the Irish immigrants arrived on our shores.   

The potato is native to Peru with the earliest tuber remains found dating back to 2500 BC. Potatoes provided the principal energy source for the Inca Empire and its Spanish successor. In Bolivia and Peru in altitudes above 10,000, tubers exposed to the cold night air are made into chuño. Making chuño, which means frozen potato in Spanish, is a five day process during which the potatoes are frozen for three nights then subsequently exposed to bright sunlight each day. By the end of the process the chuno is chopped and may be stored for years with no loss of nutritional value. The potato was introduced to Spain and cultivation traveled throughout all of Europe by the 1600's, reaching the American shores by 1621 when the Governor of Bermuda sent a chest of them to Jamestown, Virginia. 

Astounding potato news was released last year as a new scientific study was begun in Lima, Peru. Lima's International Potato Center is a nonprofit research facility that seeks to reduce poverty and achieve food security for millions globally. They have chosen the La Joya Pampas, a sector of the Atacama Desert in southern Peru, for an experiment in growing potatoes in harsh conditions. The La Joya Pampas are considered perhaps the driest place on earth... nothing grows and there is no insect or animal life. It was selected because it resembles Mars.

Of the 100 potatoes selected for the experiment, 40 are native to the Andes Mountains, all are conditioned to withstand sudden climate changes, and to reproduce in rocky, arid terrain. Sixty have been genetically modified to be immune to viruses and survive with little water and salt. The head of the experiment, Peruvian Julio Valdivia-Silva is concerned as cropland disappears and population grows, millions may starve. He is hopeful that perhaps food may eventually be farmed on Mars to feed our ever-growing population.
 A potato will draw poison from a wound. Michael had a bad toothache once and the dentist put an intricate drain in the wrong place so he was in agony. I had him put a thin slice of potato on the gum line above the abscess and after about 15 minutes it popped and drained. After swishing with hydrogen peroxide, he was good to go.
 Other uses of the Potato:
Place raw slices on broken bones to promote healing
Carry them to prevent rheumatism
Treat facial blemishes by washing you face daily with cool potato juice.
Treat frostbite or sunburn by applying raw grated potato or potato juice to the affected area.
Ease a sore throat by putting a slice of baked potato in a stocking and tying it around your throat.
Ease aches and pains by rubbing the affected area with the water potatoes have been boiled in.
Place potato slices on the eyes after receiving welders flash to reduce pain and swelling.
Photo: We have turned the seasonal corner when the potatoes begin to sprout!


Thursday, December 14, 2017

Entertaining Angels Unawares... A Christmas Story

 It was late December and our children were still little so naturally we were broke. Christmas was coming and although we were not extravagant, we still provided special food and thoughtful gifts for all eight of them. We were entering the on ramp on I-40 to drive home from a grocery excursion and saw an elderly gentleman standing on the side of the hi-way, leaning on a wooden crutch. He was about 75 with a stubble of beard, dressed in ragged clothing, wearing an old gray hat. His belongings were in a small stained bag, and he had an old woolen blanket pulled tightly about him. I felt sudden sadness upon seeing him and asked Michael if we should stop. He said no because we had three of the children with us and he would have to squeeze him in the backseat with them. He said that surely someone would pick the old gent up for me not to worry. And yet both of us felt a nagging sadness at the old man’s plight.

The following morning we realized we had forgotten some necessary items and again made the twenty mile run to the adjacent town. It was overcast, drizzling and a very cold blasting North wind made conditions miserable. As we drove I asked Michael if he thought someone had picked up the old man. He promised me that surely someone had. We bought the last of our necessities and had only forty dollars left as we entered the on ramp.

Sweet Jesus, he was still there! How could he still be there? We stopped just beyond the old man and Michael got out of the car to help him to his seat. He settled in and I turned the heater to warp while he began thanking us. He said he was trying to make it the Indian Pueblos in New Mexico where he knew he could stay for the winter. He was Canadian and had served in WWI for the US but had been denied benefits due to his citizenship status. He had fallen on hard times and just needed a bus ticket to get on his way but could find no help in getting one. He had been standing on the side of the road for many days.

Michael suggested that we take him 15 miles to the Travel Plaza where all of the truckers stopped for gas and that perhaps he could find a ride from someone there. He gratefully accepted the idea and said he was warming up a bit. Michael stopped at the plaza and pressed our last forty dollars into the gentleman’s hand as he helped him into the building.

As we drove away we kept feeling a nagging worry and so after unloading our bundles, we drove the seven miles back to the plaza to check on him to see if he had gotten a ride. Our inquiries were met with puzzled looks for no one knew what we were talking about. No one had seen him... not the people Michael had nodded to as he opened the door, not gas attendants nor any the truckers. Only we had seen him and I have often wondered if he was there as a holy test for us... a test of our humanity, our faith, and to show our children by example how to generously love.

As this recession deepens, let us remember that many times our sense of compassion, our sense of brotherhood and our ability to unconditionally share with those less fortunate than ourselves may be tested.

And let us remember:
‘Forget not to show love unto strangers for thereby some have entertained angels unawares‘. Hebrews 13:2

Monday, December 11, 2017

Glorious Grapefruit

Grapefruit growing in clusters like grapes!

With the arrival of Christmas just days away, the historical significance of fresh fruit cannot be underscored. Common in tropical climates, citrus fruit was rare and exotic in the twentieth century, and often children wished only for an orange for Christmas. By the 1950’s gift boxes of fruit and nuts were a special and much appreciated gift and are still presented to business acquaintances.   

Among the most popular citrus fruits is the grapefruit which has an interesting past. An ancestor of the grapefruit, the pomelo (Citrus maxima, or Citrus grandis) originated in Asia where it was discovered by Captain Shattuck of the East India Company. He took seeds from his travels to Barbados and planted them in 1696. It is one of the four original citrus species and the grapefruit as we know it is love the child of a polemo and a sweet orange.  Unnamed for several centuries, it was eventually called grapefruit for its unusual habit of growing in clusters as do grapes.

The grapefruit was originally called ‘forbidden fruit’ and was first documented by Rev. Griffith Hughes in 1750. In his book entitled ‘The Natural History of Barbados’ he lists it as one of the seven wonders found on the Island.

The fruit was brought to Florida in 1842 by Count Odet Phillipe, a settler of French descent who also introduced cigar making to what is now the Tampa Bay area. The climate was perfect for growing citrus and the Count was later joined by Kimball Chase Atwood who founded the Atwood Grapefruit Company in the 1890’s. The largest grapefruit company in the world, the Atwood Company produced 80,000 boxes of fruit annually and discovered the pink grapefruit in 1906.

In the early nineteen hundreds the fruit became so universally popular that silver companies began producing grapefruit spoons, which are tapered to allow the bowl to slip easily into the segments of fruit which surround the cored center.

A spectacular Christmas dessert is broiled grapefruit. For the dessert, cut the fruit in half, core and cut 2/3 around each segment leaving 1/3 intact to secure the others. Douse it with a smattering of Cointreau (an orange flavored liqueur), sprinkle with brown sugar, place a scarlet maraschino cherry in the center and broil until the brown sugar bubbles. It is an elegant show stopping finale!

Monday, December 4, 2017

The Christmas Tree


 The lovely evergreens have begun their seasonal show and it is always impressive that they chose winter, as the world is encased in frosty slumber, to appear their finest. Bearing fruit or berries despite the cold of winter, they have always been considered quite remarkable and were an important aspect of ancient pagan rituals.

The Romans considered evergreens symbols of fertility and used them to trim their homes for the New Year while northern Europeans hung them over doors to ward off evil spirits that were believed to stalk the winter landscape. German and Scandinavian people had long made evergreen wreaths to celebrate the Winter Solstice and over time were included in their celebrations of the birth of Jesus.

It is said that Martin Luther began the German tradition of decorating trees. In about 1500 as he was walking through a snow covered forest, he was struck by the beauty of dusted evergreens shimmering in the moonlight. So enamored was he by the natural beauty that he placed a tree inside for his children, decorated with lit candles symbolizing the starry sky and honoring Christ's birth. Following this tradition, the church began to include a tree for Christmas and by the mid-1600’s it was decorated with apples to symbolize Adam and Eve's expulsion from Eden.

About this time German Christians began bringing trees into their homes and soon they began to decorate them. Their tradition arrived with Hessian immigrants to the colonies and overcame the austere (and unpopular) Puritan belief that ‘all work and no play’ included banning Christmas celebrations.

In 1832 Charles Follen, a German immigrant and professor at Harvard, decorated the first American Christmas tree to share with his family and friends. And in 1846, a young German Prince Albert presented his new bride Victoria with her first tree and thus the English Victorian Christmas was born. Word of decorated Christmas trees spread rapidly and was embraced by almost all Christian cultures; it remains today a universal symbol of the holiday season.

Tuesday, November 28, 2017

Leaves: To Rake or Not to Rake


Following the high winds last week the garden is not only beaten but absolutely bone dry. Sunday we set sprinklers and almost instantly the winter grasses resumed their vibrant green and perked up. The tree branches were wind stripped of their last leaves and are now bare so suddenly the birds may be seen and heard with amazing clarity.

Nature devised leafless trees to give additional sunlight for warmth during the cold winter months. The leaves are now collected in crisp piles on the garden floor where they will begin to work by slowly decomposing over time. Lately there seems to be much discussion among various gardening experts on the subject of these fallen gems.

For many years raking leaves was an autumn duty to tidy the lawn for winter and they were dutifully transported to a compost pile. Compost was first described as useful for the garden in 1587 so its properties have a time tested tradition. Compost is simply decomposed organic matter which improves the soil and gives it a lighter consistency.

In the 1930’s to 1940’s a united America was encouraged to grow vegetables for the war effort and most urban homes had a compost bin. My father had one and was fairly constant with his enthusiastic interest in it. It was located in the farthest corner of the yard and consisted of three wooden sides approximately four feet high and it was deep enough to move about in. Leaves are the basis of compost with grass clippings, old newspapers, coffee grounds, and other organic matter added, all of which were in 12-18 inch layers. Bone meal and ammonium nitrate were sprinkled between the layers to aid in decomposition and give it a boost. The mixture was tossed about while sprinkling with water occasionally to dampen it and encourage it to ‘cook’… it was quite a chore. By spring the process was complete producing dark matter that had a deep and rich aroma. It was a safe and natural fertilizer for the vegetable garden.  

It sounds like an incredible effort to produce what may be found naturally on the forest floor which is covered by undisturbed leaves. These leaves break down over time creating the dark rich soil that nourishes the fledging saplings as they grow to become forest giants like their parents… it is an ever-repeating cycle.

If one takes inspiration from the natural cycle this process may be utilized in the garden and raking will definitely deny the landscape these valuable nutrients. Natural nutrients are far better than bagged fertilizers and again there is the time, expense, and effort involved in application of such products. Perhaps mow over the leaves to mince them up a bit, however allow them to remain to do their work over the winter.  To answer the question:  Not to rake!

Monday, November 6, 2017

Pumpkins Saved the Pilgrims

Map by John Smith circa 1605... note pumpkins

Pumpkins are believed to have originated in North America where they have thrived for thousands of years. They are reputed to be one of the earliest known food crops in the Americas with ancient containers of stored seeds discovered in Mexico dating back as far as 5,300 to 7,000 BC.

Early Native Americans roasted pumpkin strips over campfires and used them as a food source long before the arrival of European explorers. Pumpkins helped The Native Americans make it through long cold winters as they stored well and were not prone to insect infestations. They used the sweet flesh in numerous ways: roasted, baked, parched, boiled and dried.

They ate pumpkin seeds and also used them as a medicine as it was believed they guarded one against cold. Some Mexican tribes believe pumpkin seeds give exceptional endurance to the people… plus they are an easy to transport energy snack to take along on travels. The hollowed dried pumpkin shells were often used as bowls and to store food when the top was put in place.  

Archeologists have determined that variations of squash and pumpkins were cultivated along river and creek banks along with sunflowers and beans. This took place long before the emergence of maize (corn). After maize was introduced, ancient farmers learned to grow squash with maize and beans using the "Three Sisters" tradition. The three are all that is required to keep one healthy.   

Columbus took seeds back to Spain where they were grown as food for hogs and considered unfit for human consumption. The word pumpkin originated from the Greek word Pepõn which means large melon. The word gradually was morphed by the French, the English and then the Americans into the word "pumpkin."

As the Pilgrims were enduring their first freezing winters in New England, they were welcomed by kind Native Americans who saved their lives through bountiful gifts of local food. They provided roasted pumpkin for them and the Pilgrims soon discovered they were easy to grow.  

For the Puritans, pumpkin not only provided breakfast and lunch, but beer as well. For the beer they fermented a combination of persimmons, hops, maple sugar and pumpkin… beer is high in nutrients and for this reason it is still served to recovering patients at hospitals in Germany.

As one Pilgrim wrote in 1633:

For pottage and puddings and custards and pies
Our pumpkins and parsnips are common supplies,
We have pumpkins at morning and pumpkins at noon,
If it were not for pumpkins we should be undoon."

Monday, October 30, 2017

Social Wasps on the Move

Under the eve of the chicken house in a terrifying mass!

This time of year it seems the social wasp has taken an extreme dislike to humankind and they are poised to attack at a moments notice. A very nervous insect on a good day, lately they are like gun slingers at the OK Corral! It is because they are in a last minute fervor of mating to ensure survival of their species. Wasp society is typically matriarchal, the female is the one with the sting, it is best to stay clear since she wants no interruptions for this final party. 

The days of the colony are numbered and soon many wasps will die leaving behind the mated queens who will find a place to hibernate for the winter. In the early spring the females emerge to find a suitable place to build a nest. Their bodies already contain fertilized eggs from last fall so they need only to select a place secure from the elements to begin the cycle of reproduction. Once the site is selected, surviving females gather to build a paper nest.

Some studies indicate that several species of social wasps select a the queen through a contest within the group who gather in early spring. All of the females within this species are capable of laying eggs however the one with the ability to eat the eggs of her rivals wins. Following selection of the winner all other females stop laying eggs and the losers become workers, foraging for their queen and raising her young.     

In other species, the female lays the eggs and raises the first young wasps herself…  the first of the eggs to hatch are always sterile female who become workers who take over for their mother. They expand the nest and maintain their siblings in a series of intricate brooding cells. It is easy to determine the number of wasps in a colony by the size of the nest. Large colonies, which can number into the thousands, have extremely large and intricate nests.

 As with Ants, male wasps are relatively unimportant and rather like dead beat dads. There is little necessity for them with exception of fertilization of the eggs as they contribute nothing to the hive. Wasp males born late in the season have the express purpose of embracing the females and following this task they die.

The wasp is a fierce natural predator, eliminating many garden pests, so oftentimes useful to ignore them. However stay clear of the excited buzzing-about that is occurring now; they are willing to attack enmass in a terrifying swirl.  

Monday, October 16, 2017

For the Love of Leaves


Sunday was glorious weather requiring a light jacket as the cool breezes gently blew throughout the day. It was a stark contrast to the smothering humid heat and screaming wind before the violent storm on Saturday evening. The rolling thunder, flashes of lighting and horizontal rain was remarkable in its terrifying velocity. Sunday reminded us there is calm following a storm… and Autumn arrived.   

At last the trees are beginning their foliage show and it is promising to be a lovely one that we may enjoy until our first deep freeze. Although the following explanation will be a vast over simplification, it may provide insight into the foliage change. During the spring and summer the trees use their leaves to collect air and water to turn it into food. The process, called photosynthesis means ‘putting together with light’ so as the days shorten and daylight diminishes, the gathering process ends. The leaf is no longer necessary to the tree and begins its transformation providing breathtaking color for a brief moment in time.

The chemicals chlorophyll and carotenoids are present in the leaf cells throughout the growing season with chlorophyll making leaves the bright green color. As daylight decreases in autumn, chlorophyll production stops and the chlorophyll disappears. With the loss of chlorophyll the carotids, which have been there all along, become visible and display lovely yellow leaf color. Lastly the anthocyanins arrive and take center stage, ushering in the vibrant reds we associate with Autumn.

Anthocyanins, which are glucose (sugar), are singularly responsible for the brilliant hues of purple, crimson, and scarlet. They are a fickle lot, insisting on warm sunny days and crisp evenings to slow the closing of the leaf veins and trap excess sugar produced at this time… if the weather does not comply to their demand, lackluster reds are produced. Following this last exercise, the trees will toss their leaves so they may begin their final challenge.

Since shade and the foliage show are not all the leaves have to offer, their parting gift is perhaps the most important. As the leaves drift from the trees and collect below they continue to work by slowly decomposing. Over time this process adds nutrients to create a dark rich soil which nourishes the baby saplings as they grow to become forest giants like their parents. New research has proven that trees will provide a network of mutual care through intertwining roots and the adults will actually send nutrients to ill or immature trees to assure they live and thrive.  The miracle of nature is always at work regardless of the season.


Monday, October 9, 2017

Miraculous Migrations


According to season twice a year an amazing number of species on the planet tend to migrate. As defined by the dictionary ‘migration is the seasonal movement of a complete population of insects, fish, and birds from one area to another as a response to changes in temperature or daylight’.  Our birds and butterflies are in the process of migrating South at this time and the sight of them is awe inspiring as great numbers gather.

The Butterflies: The butterflies have been arriving in my garden for several weeks as they continue their journey south to Texas or Mexico. It took three days for hundreds of Monarchs to travel overhead with many flying from far Northern states. Often in a group of six to ten, sometimes alone, they stopped for a sip from my flowers and rested a bit before continuing their journey. I finally got a chaise lounge to look upward rather than have my neck hurt from looking to the sky for hours.

An oddity this year is the spectacular gathering of literally hundreds of bright yellow butterflies dancing about the garden. There is great symbolism associated with yellow butterflies with some Native American tribes believing they bring guidance, hope, joy and creativity with their sunny presence reminding one to have fun. A yellow butterfly flying about you is said to bring happiness and prosperity, while one hitting your face in the fall means the leaves will turn yellow and a frost will come within 10 days… one gently hit my face on Sunday so we shall see.
Of course the Irish had a myth concerning the yellow butterflies believing they are indicators of departed souls who are resting at peace in the after-life. This belief was adopted by the Scots as well and the sight of them near gravesites promised the souls of children and mothers who died during childbirth were safely in Heaven.

In some costal cultures it was believed if a yellow butterfly landed on you in the fall, grave danger of illness was looming so extra precautions should be taken to protect oneself. *Naturally the formula for protection has been lost over time. It was believed if one landed on a departing sailor he would not survive the voyage.  

The Birds: This week will mark the end of the Hawks and Vultures migration, so look in open fields and possibly catch them as they ‘kettle’. They will gather as though they had been telepathically summoned, their numbers reaching hundreds as they gather and wait for some internal signal. The signal is a warm thermal updraft which will aid them in their travels and with its arrival they will begin to kettle.

Kettling is the manner by which the birds take flight and begin graceful acrobatic wheeling and swirling in a circular motion. They will twirl higher and higher as more birds join the wondrous dance, continuing ever-upward until the first birds appear only as small dark specks in the blue sky. And then they will disappear and be gone, returning in the early spring.

Monday, September 25, 2017

Bird Watching... Fun For All Ages

The baby-green whisper thin wheat and winter grasses are emerging right on schedule. Autumn has arrived and is a season unto itself wondrous to behold and enjoy before winter. With pleasant temperatures and bright sunshine, it is perfect for taking a walk, swishing through the falling leaves.
As the leaves have begun to thin, it is easy to see birds who are no longer hidden among masses of greenery. As the flit among bare branches, they become a visual delight to watch as they too enjoy this fine weather.
The National Audubon Society has provided a provocative article on the joy of birding, which is the practice of bird watching. There are people who are avid birders, keeping notes on species they have seen, where they were found or where they nest, how many babies hatched, and how many eggs did not. The serious birders often gather in groups to seek a rare species and photograph it with very expensive cameras to impress other birders. Then there are simple bird-watchers…most of us fall into this category.
The Society encourages parents to teach all of their children, from toddlers to teenagers, the joys of bird watching. Children have an enormous capacity for taking in knowledge and storing it… their minds must like sponges for them to learn all that they do in a few short years. From speaking to walking, observing to participating, what they learn as youngsters will stay with them for life, expanding as they grow.
Libraries have numerous books on birds and where they travel (migrate) so presenting one to a child will immediately pique their interest. Perhaps add a miniature pair of binoculars for fun and the months will simply fly by.
Today’s children who learn to love birding are the future of our planet for they may become environmentalists and scientists…  they may discover a new species or save one that is fading.
This week try to see and enjoy the migrations of the Hawks and Vultures, who will all be kettling… which means hundreds will gather in a field until an invisible signal is sent which causes them to suddenly begin flying upward in a swirling motion… higher and higher with others joining each moment. Up and up until out of sight… they are going south for the winter and will not return until spring.  

John James Audubon 1826  

*The Audubon Society, founded in 1905, is the oldest non-profit environmental organization dedicated to conservation. It is named in honor John James Audubon who observed, painted, cataloged, and described the birds of North America in 1827-38.  

Monday, September 18, 2017

Fall Bloomers

 For several weeks it has been delightful to see the Crepe Myrtle giving her full show of fuchsia, crimson or white flowers. Originating in China, the Crepe Myrtle was first introduced to the Southern United States in 1747 where it thrived in their moderate winters. Then in 1950, the cold hardy Japanese Crepe Myrtle arrived, placing the tree on the national agenda. With lovely peeling bark coloration, resistance to powdery mildew, and even a dwarf variety available, it is a suitable guest in every garden. If spent blossoms are clipped, the Crape Myrtle will continue blooming until frost.... and this necessity is a marvelous excuse to create an arrangement.  
This is also the seasonal time when the spectacular Morning Glories have reached their zenith, climbing almost any vertical surface at a surprising growth rate of up to inches a day. The flower of the Morning Glory is called to open with the dawn and lasts but one day, finishing the flower cycle by evening. However since it is a prolific bloomer, there is not a day that does not include dozens of new blooms from summer until frost.

 Wild morning glories have been traced back to ancient China where they were used for medicinal and ceremonial purposes. The Japanese first cultivated the flower for ornamental use in the 9th century and it is celebrated in both culture and art.

 Artifacts indicate that over three thousand years ago, many South American civilizations had discovered when morning glory seeds were added to the substances from the rubber tree, a bouncing rubber ball was produced. The sulfur in the seeds was the key and the ancients used the exact same process supposedly ‘discovered’ by Charles Goodyear in 1844.

The flower lasting but one day led to romantic folklore and in Victorian times the fleeting flowers represented the fickle nature of love while the profusion of new blooms symbolized the renewable nature of affection. At that time images of morning glories were used on tombstones where they were a symbol of the shortness of life.

Besides the traditional blue there are many new varieties in an astounding array of colors making this charming vine a welcome addition to any garden. With drought and poor soil tolerance, rapid growth habit, and amazing twining ability, the morning glory has long been used to shade porches, easily climbing a trellis to provide cooling relief on hot summer days.

It is an annual, meaning it must be planted each year and will die at first frost. Collection and storage of the seeds as the season progresses is economical however it should be mentioned the seeds contain an hallucinogen. For this reason they are considered dangerous and must be stored away from children and pets.

Pollen and Super Pollen

Since the summer consisted of driving winds and lovely rains, the pollen has reached epic proportions and seems to have permeated everything, everywhere. When the dust from preparing the fields to plant wheat is added to the equation, the allergens are beyond escape so measures should be taken concerning outdoor activities.

 I recently read several scientific articles on the effects of Global Warming. Since the jury is 'in' and the experts agree it is an indisputable fact, the information of interest to gardeners addressed the topic of pollen. According to the professors who study such matters, the pollen will increase to the status of 'super' in the coming years.

The increased emissions of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by fuel propelled autos, airplanes, and large machinery are apparently the primary cause according to the experts. Since plants and grasses utilize carbon dioxide in the production of their food, the theory is that plants and grasses are now receiving the equivalent of daily doses of fertilizer. Gardeners who supply fertilizer in regular intervals know their plant life is rejuvenated by such applications so the theory is not off base.

Research on Ragweed, the major culprit of allergens in the Fall, indicate it produces more pollen and larger pollen as the growing season lengthens and the carbon dioxide levels rise. According to the US Agriculture Research Service, Ragweed already produces 131% more pollen now as opposed to a hundred years ago. Their projection is that by 2050 the percentage number will rise to an alarming 320%. Research also indicates trees and grasses, the prime sources of allergy misery in the spring and summer, also are in the process of becoming super pollinators.

As the allergy suffers know, this research provides no new information with exception of the possible cause of increased misery. Apparently the more beautiful the time of year, the more torment one may expect. However, there are a few rules set forth by the American Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology to relieve some symptoms and they suggest:

*A thorough spring cleaning of the house, top to bottom to remove dust.

*Postponing morning coffee in the garden until after ten when overnight pollen has settled.

*Stay inside on hot, dry, windy days if at all possible… wind storms are actually the equivalent of rain storms.

*Do not hang laundry, especially sheets, on the line as allergens collect on them. Allergens will also be on the over shirt idly tossed on the patio chair yesterday, so don’t put it back on.

*After working outside, shower and wash your hair before bed. Change your pillow case daily.

*Be aware of high mold spore counts after a heavy rain or in the evening. Dizziness and/or blurry vision are clues the spore count is high.

Note: I wrote this article several years ago, however it bears repetition as a reminder since the number of allergens this season seem to be unprecedented… with the rains, the rag weed is over seven feet tall this year!

Thursday, September 7, 2017

The Hurricane of 1780... and total devastation.

All week, I have been reading Nature on the Rampage by Ann and Myron Sutton to better understand the forces of nature. Written in 1962, their research utilizes all scientific data available at the time…and predictions still remain obscure to this day.
·       Hurricanes were named after Huracan, an evil storm god of the Caribbean.
·       One of the most devastating hurricanes on record occurred in 1780. It began off Barbados and came ashore where it flattened trees and dwellings killing countless numbers of people.
·       It destroyed an English fleet anchored off St. Lucia, then ravaged the island completely leaving 6,000 dead in its wake.
·       It swirled on to Martinique, enveloped a French convoy and sank more than 40 ships carrying 4,000 soldiers before leveling towns and villages killing another 9,000 people.
·       It finally wound down after destroying Puerto Rico and an untold number of ships and fishing vessels caught unaware in open sea.

 A Mariner is quoted with his description of this hurricane…

·       He said, “You cannot breathe with a hurricane blowing full in your face. You cannot see either; the impact on your eyeball of spray and rain traveling over a hundred miles an hour makes seeing quite impossible.

·       The blowing sand cuts your flesh and you hear nothing but the scream and booming of the wind, which drowns even the thunder and the breaking seas.

Monday, September 4, 2017

Tulips... and the Movie About Them

In the Garden

By Catherine Dougherty

Time to Order Tulips

 There is a new film out entitled ‘Tulip Fever’, which is about the obsession with tulips which occurred with her discovery in the 16th century. It is exceedingly exciting that the film institute would find such a story worthy since most gardening history remains in relative obscurity. Also it would quite odd for me to assume the writer found inspiration from my column and blog about ‘Tulipomania’ written in 2012, however it does remain a possibility.  

 It was such an interesting time in gardening history that I shall resubmit my original column to enlighten those who are unaware… and I feel watching the film will provide thrilling excitement to all of those who are in love with a spring garden.

The Original Column: The Tulip~

individuals invested in tulip bulbs as they now invest in stocks of oil or other ventures. Many fortunes and vast land holdings were lost over Tulip bulbs; one shipping magnate gave a fleet of ten ships for 10 bulbs! By the mid 1700's the bulbs were still expensive, but available to an elite public willing to pay the price for them. The Ambassador from Holland proudly presented 7 bulbs to Martha Washington following her request and they were planted in a place of honor in her original gardens at Mt.

Descendants of the Dutch bulbs will not mature properly or flower a second year without a cold winter so expect to plant each year in warmer zones. However since time and science have provided an affordable array of spectacular colors and form, Tulips are still a magnificent addition to the garden. Choose Common or frilly, parrot or scented; all are worth the effort to pl
The tulip is perfect as a cutting flower for spring arThe joyful tulip will arrive at the garden party with the first blush of Spring, promising the garden season has indeed arrived. Tulip bulbs are readily available and easily affordable nowadays, but history proves that was not always the case.

The Tulip originated in Asia Minor where the Ottomans developed cultivars which concentrated on long, thin, wispy flowers of different colors. This lovely flower was first brought to the Vienna Court in the 1500's and was presented to the King as a prized gift from exploration.

As the majestic Tulip began her travels around Europe, she was greeted with wild excitement in every nation. Originally as a matter of social status, only members of the royal family were allowed access to certain bulbs; lower classes were forbidden to possess them. Naturally, the result was a deep desire akin to lust to own a Tulip bulb. Fierce competition, intrigue, and smuggling of the bulbs emerged, resulting in a rage referred to as "Tulipomania".  By 1634-1637, the situation had become so intense that the governments of both England and Holland were forced to pass legislation to regulate trade in the tulip market.

At the height of the mania, interest was so widespread that individuals invested in tulip bulbs as they now invest in the stock market or other monetary ventures. Many fortunes and vast land holdings were lost over Tulip bulbs; one shipping magnate gave a fleet of ten ships for 10 bulbs! By the mid 1700's the bulbs were still expensive, but available to an elite public willing to pay the price for them. The Ambassador from Holland proudly presented 7 bulbs to Martha Washington following her request and they were planted in a place of honor in her original gardens at Mt. Vernon.

Descendants of the Dutch bulbs will not mature properly or flower a second year without a cold winter so expect to plant each year in warmer zones. However since time and science have provided an affordable array of spectacular colors and form, Tulips are still a magnificent addition to the garden. Choose Common or frilly, parrot or scented; all are worth the effort to plant… if only for one season.
Photo: The tulip is perfect as a cutting flower for spring arrangements.
The Tulips are blooming! The joyful tulip will arrive at the garden party with the first blush of Spring, promising the garden season has indeed arrived. Tulip bulbs are readily available and easily affordable nowadays, but history proves that was not always the case.